Sometimes history is putting together two perspectives in order to gain true focus on the past. The larger histories of the areas of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas are well covered in myriad works. The larger histories of the Pentecostal Movement of the 20th century is well known and covered in numerous important works. What is lacking sometimes is the overlap that brings a spotlight on to what was happening in this place, at this time, in these areas.

As part of a larger research project, I began to piece together a timeline (something I had not seen in any of my research) and this has been very illuminating. It is not finished, it may never be finished, because other fragments of history may lay undiscovered in an attic or an archive. Someone looking for 'A' often overlooks the 'B' and 'C' which can provide better context, meaning, or examples of an event.

Pentecostal Timeline: An Annotated List of Instances in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas
Compiled by Marilyn A. Hudson
In progress since August 27, 2010

Deleware, Ohio Daniel Awrey receives the baptism of the Holy Spirit and speaks in an unknown language (some sources question this).

1895 –
Reports of possible Pentecostal experiences in Iowa, Nebraska or Kansas.[ Martin, Larry. The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour.” Joplin, MO: Christian Life Books, 1999.pg. 26]

Charles Parham speaks with a member of the FBHC discussing a spiritual baptism with tongues; this turns his attention to assigning his Bible College students to explore the scriptures over Christmas break.

Topeka, Kansas, Bethel Bible College, Agnes Ozman is the first of several students to speak in tongues in response to their study and prayer over the holiday break. [Synan, Old Time Religion, Advocate Press, 1973,pg. 92.; ]

Lamont, OK FBHC convened its General Council Meeting in the church at Lamont, Ok. This church was the one and only church in the FBHC work in Oklahoma. The conference, or state association as it was known, disbanded until Sept. 1909 when it was reorganized.
Fall – Galena, Ks evangelist Charles Parham arrived to preach the “Apostolic (now Pentecostal) teaching.” (Goss, pg. 11). A Mrs. Arthur was healed of blindness and people spoke in ‘tongues’.


“Saloon Was closed Up by An Order of Court”, The Oklahoman (Jan. 22, 1904):9. Charges by a grand jury investigating corruption in city government were served to the owner of the Blue front Saloon, Dick J. Cramer
“Jack du Bois choked a Boy”, The Oklahoman (Dec. 24, 1904): 5 About 8 p.m. one night local drunk Jack du Bois, was assaulting and choking a 12 year old boy, Joe Dishman, behind the Blue front Saloon and was arrested.
Parham holds a revival where people from ‘Carthage, Missouri to Miami, Ok’ accepted the ‘full gospel’ (Burke, pg. 17)

1905 –
Howard Goss holds a Pentecostal revival in Tahleqah, OK (Burke, pg.17 – who suggests it was OK’s first Pentecostal church)
Pentecostal revival at Billings, OK led by Harry P. Lott and an unnamed Free Methodist minister.
Summer, Parham takes 24 people to Houston, Tx to open a work. He left in charge of the Galena, KS Assembly Mrs. Mary Arthur and Mrs. Fannie Dobson.(Goss, pg. 29). In Houston, ‘called to the Lord’s work’ were Rosa Cadwalder. Hattie Allen, Millicen McCLendon.
African American Lucy Farrow, receives the baptism in Houston and feels called to go to LA; Parham provides the fare.(Goss, pg. 35).
The lady workers did not wear uniforms but the current fashions of the day “silks…satins…jewels or whatever they happened to possess.” (Goss, pg. 38)

 Jan. 18, Richard Beall and Oscar C. Wilkens appear in OKC to start a mission work, start with a Sunday School on S. Robinson ;
 An African-American restaurant, Haynes CafĂ©, is located at 7 West Grand Avenue. In May edition of the Oklahoman there is a small news report of a fire that broke out in the middle of the night from an overheated stove. “Last Night’s Fire”. Oklahoman (May 9, 1906):5.
 Beulah Holiness School, or Emmanuel Bible College, established (Clancy, Bryon. The history of Beckham County. Accessed at http://files.usgwarchives.org/ok/beckham/history/carter.txt; Burke pg. 18 says it was 1907). Established by a group of Holiness people called, ‘The Indian Creek Band’ settled a community they called Beulah and there established a Bible school to teach holiness. Reports were it was a three story brick structure near a Baptist Church and they mailed a newspaper, Apostolic Faith, out nearby Doxy, Oklahoma.
 Asuza Street revival starts in the spring in L.A. (Martin, pg.165).
 George G. Collins, one time farmhand for the 101 Ranch in Oklahoma is ordained at Azusa Street (date unclear) (Martin, pg.13).
 A Reverend Cook, who had been in California at Asuza street now comes back and goes to Lamont to conduct a Pentecostal revival.
 A ‘group of workers’ was sent to Wallis, Tx in 1906 (Feb) and they included Nora Byrd, Mabel Wise, Millicent McClendon and Hattie Allen (later Obermann) (Goss, pg. 41)
 Visiting ministers came to help the new work, including Fay Carrothers, Mable Smith-Hall, Mrs Annie Hall and others…

 Feb. 6 Harry Lott, Beall & Wilkins rent the Blue Front Saloon, 7 West Grand, for $40 a month [Muse papers; Campbell; Harold Paul]. The saloon was located on the edge of the wild center core of the city, known as OKC’s “Hell’s Half Acre”. Today the area between Santa Fe and Broadway and Sheridan to Reno is largely known as the area of the Cox Convention Center (the old Myriad Convention Center), a hotel, and the turn off into Bricktown. "Back in the day" this was the wildest place in the newly opened "Oklahoma Town" or "Oklahoma Station" ("City" did not come about formally till nearly forty years after the 1889 land run). It was so wild it earned - through blood, sweet, and tears - the nickname "Hell's Half Acre." If you stand on the platform of the Amtrack station and look west and slightly north that is where this wild town within in a town was located. If you walked west on Sheridan (called Grand back then), just past Santa Fe (called Front then) on the north would be "Bunco Street" with its gambling halls and con men. Look south and there would be "Hop Boulevard", perfect if you were thirsty. And just behind that, "Alabaster Row" was located on California, featuring brothels, gambling halls, and other businesses for the African-American population in those days.Walk up Santa Fe (Front) to Main and turn west and you would see a bit finer offerings with The Arlington and, in 1900, the Lee Hotel at the corner of Main and Broadway. Turn east and across the tracks and there were the depot and just beyond to the northeast "Old Zulu's" original brothell/saloon establishment in current Bricktown. Travel south to 312 E. Grand and you would have seen the spot of "Big Annie" Wynn's original land run tent brothel. It had grown into a two story building, and moved a few blocks east, by statehood. From at least 1902, a walk up Broadway (into the 100 to 300 blocks) would have found "fortune-tellers', "crystal ball gazers", "clairvoyants", "mediums", and "pyschics". All world traveled and well known, or so they said as they advertized their stay in the parlors of local hotels and boarding house along the street. [Hudson, M. Mystorical accessed at www.mystorical.blogspot.com]
 In this setting the work begins in Oklahoma City.
 Mary A. Sperry, a local woman, opens her home for ‘tarrying services” (Campbell, Pentecostal Holiness Church history)
 Irwin opens church in El Reno, OK (Welch, pg. 36]
 May 1907 JH King holds a FBHC revival in Lamont, Ok [King, Yet Speaketh, PHC, 1949, pg. 127, he had received his baptism just the previous February];
 Summer there is a revival at Beulah under once Nazarene and now Pentecostal minister Robinson. 1st person to receive baptism there was an elderly woman named McClung (Campbell 210-211). Daniel Awrey goes to Beulah this year also as the Emmanuel Holiness Bible College Bible instructor and then principal. That summer the Pentecostal experience is said to have arrived at the school. Dolly and Dan York go to Beulah where the “Pentecostal folk” were .[One nightclub]
 August, Beall, Lott and others are reported to have received ‘their baptism’ [Paul, pg. 12]
 As a result of these events, the FBHC reestablished its presence along with independent Pentecostals and churches were started in: Yukon, Billings, Drummond, Perry. Pawnee, Muskogee, Mazie, Witchita, McAllister. Quinton, Cowen. Hart. Stratford Paul’s Valley, Castle, Swan Lake, Manitou, Faxon, Tipton, and in KS<>
 Lott organizes the OKC Mission aka Blue Front Saloon Mission into the FBHC. Oldest organized church in the OK Conference and one of the oldest Pentecostal churches in the Midwest
 Nov. well known and colorful figure of “Old Zulu” aka Martha Fleming, a notorious OKC madam, prostitute, pick-pocket, and addict received salvation and was the next day baptized in the local river. Although, she appears to have later renounced her conversion, it is extremely interesting that in a day and age when Oklahoma and the nation was extremely racist, that an African American was welcomed into a mission service at the Blue Front Saloon Mission. This is extremely telling of how wide-spread the Azusa ethos might have been and the value racial and gender equity was esteemed in the early days of Pentecostalism. [McRill, A. Satan Came Also, 1955. pg. 4; Paul, p. 13]
1908 –
 Dan and Dollie York rec’d Pentecostal baptism summer at Foss under F.M. Brittain, FBHC
 JH King holds revival at Synder ;
 Harry Lott named ruling elder of the FBHC in Ok;  Beulah School becomes fully Pentecostal.
 “Blasphemy and Gun Play Enliven Church Service” The Oklahoman (Nov. 10, 1908):10. Services disrupted at the “Pentecostal mission, 7 West Grand Avenue”, pastored by Harry P. Lott
 Parham holds a revival in Tulsa, OK on the corner of 3rd & Cincinnati (Burke pg. 23) Out of that grew the oldest AOG congregation in OK<>
 Waurika has services led by Archie and Pearl Adams (Burke 24) 1909 –
 September F.M. Brittain comes to Oklahoma to reorganize the FBHC in the state. Agnes Ozmen LeBerge is one of several women listed as ministers
 Pentecostal revival breaks out in SW ok with Oscar Jones at Frederick
 Daniel Opperman preached in Tillman in Manitou (famed evangelist) (Burke pg 28)
 “Minister’s Wife Restrains Him”, The Oklahoman (Sept. 29, 1909):4, Lott’s wife Emma, filed a restraining order citing assault and lack of support. Lott, made $75 a month pastoring the German Holiness church (not sure if this is a typo or another congregation, cites rescue home at 300 Maple street His church is identified as located corner of Hudson and California, which would mesh with the 317 W. California address of the “First Church.”
 “Minister fined, sent to a Cell”. The Oklahoman (Oct. 3, 1909): 31. Harry P. Lott, supt. Of the Pentecostal Rescue Home for Fallen Women, 300 West Maple, OKC. Numerous newspaper accounts up to this time period underscored the challenges young women faced in the big city. In 1910, Shawnee, Oklahoma a 19 yr old Pierce Hammack, was jailed because his actions seemed consistent with "white slave traffickers". Hammack said he was employed by the Franklin Theatrical Company and either for them, or his own side line activity, he solicited girls through "mind reading" and "fortune telling". In an earlier incident from 1902, a Kansas father chased a "voodoo man" - a fortune-teller and/or magician - who he claimed had enticed his 15 year old daughter away in a similar fashion. Between 1903 and 1910 numerous incidents appeared in local Oklahoma City papers of girls met at the train depot and offered "jobs" as maids at local "hotels". The establishments, they soon learned, were staffed by working girls. Some were drugged, raped, and intimidated into staying. Some, because of previous abuse at home from family or friends, simply had no heart to move on. Others, were successfully "rescued" through various religious and social efforts. [Mystorical]
 October, Blue Front becomes the “First FBHC of OKC”
 Pentecostal services in Lee School , Muldrow, (Burke 29) 1910-
 Lott appointed ruling elder of the FBHC;
 Mary A. David appointed to a church in Manitou, reflects the role of women in the early days of the FBHC,
 “Divorces Given to Three Wives”, The Oklahoman Jan. 28, 1910): 12. Emma Lott granted divorce from Harry P., they had married in 1898 in Longmont, CO. He is described as being a pastor ‘’for the holy rollers.”
 Mary Bernice Ferguson, of Beluah headed to east oklahoma where she preached by wagon, horseback in places all around Stilwell (Burke, pg.29) 1911-
 FBHC and the PHC merge in Falcon, NC, January.
 August 30, the new Pentecostal Holiness Church convenes in sessions at the Capital Hill Park Camp under the oversight of Harry P. Lott (Paul, Harold. From Printer’s Devil to Bishop, Advocate Press, 1976, pg.16; Minutes of the Third Annual Session of the Oklahoma Pentecostal Holiness Church, pp.2-3]. Ministers listed included several women: Miss Mary K. Davis (later Shannon), Dolly York, Agnes La Berge, Pearl Burroughs. And Annie Aston (Campbell, pg. 214).
 The conference boosted 25 churches or mission stations, 17 pastors, and 12 evangelists. 1912- Arkansas evangelist Powell Youngblood invited to bring Pentecostal message to Turkey Ford, Delaware count 9Burk pg 29) 1913
 May 1, 1913, future bishop Dan Thomas Muse attends his first Pentecostal Holiness Church meeting, held on the street at the corner of Grand and Robinson in OKC. He subsequently attended ‘the mission’ and received his baptism [Paul, pg. 22]
 PHC Convention held at Delmar Gardens; W.D. York gains approval to start a school at Stratford (One nightclub)
 Ethel Musick preached her first sermon at age 17 at the Payne Schoolhouse, west of Duncan (long time AOG evangelist ) (Burke pg 28)
 Wagoner Literary Bible School {one night club) 1916-
 General Overseer of the Church of God Roy Cotnam 1917
 Harry P. Lott founds the Capital Hill Full Gospel Church. It was first the Apostolic Faith Church and in 1924 it was the site of a conference of the wider Apostolic Faith Church. 1920
 -General Overseer of the Church of God John Burk
 -First PHC Sunday School Convention held in OKC [Paul, pg. 43] 1924
 Kings College, Checotah, Ok 1927
 Monte Ne, Ark Ozark Industrial College 1927
 Kings College, Kingfisher 1946
 Southwestern Pentecostal Holiness College, OKC

Burke, Bob. Like a prairie fire: a history of the Assemblies of God in Oklahoma. OKC: OK Council of the AOG, 1994.
Campbell, J. The Pentecostal Holiness Church, 1898-1948. P.H.C. Publishing, 1948.
Conn, Charles W. Like A Might Army. Church of God Pub. House, Cleveland, TN, 1955.
Hudson, Marilyn. “Mystorical” accessed at www.mystorical.blogspot.com; When Death Rode the Rails with Tales from Hell’s Half Acre (2010).
King, J.H. Yet speaketh. P.H.C. 1949
One Nightclub and a Mule Barn: the first 60 years of Southwestern Christian University. Tate. 2006.
Paul, Harold. Dan T. Muse: From Printer’s Devil to Bishop. Advocate. 1976.
Synan, Vinson. The Old-Time Power: a history of the Pentecostal Holiness Church. Advocate Press, 1973.
Welch, Kristen Dayle. ‘Women with the Good News’: The rhetorical heritage of Pentecostal Holiness Women Preachers. CPT, 2010.

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